Propellers lose efficiency as aircraft speed increases, but very efficient at flight speeds below 725 km/h. Thrust is only useful when working with the Vx, best climb angle = Trust available – Thrust required (or excess thrust), speed of a Propeller driven Airplane. Propellers and piston engines are getting quieter and even more efficient. To fully understand how an aircraft works, student pilots must become familiar with its form of propulsion. Altitude is limited by the propellers need for thicker atmospheric air to “bite into”. 1450 BOUGHTON DRIVE Still, if you need to power a 747 or an F-22, there’s really no other way. For a propeller or a jet-engine fan, the shaft power and the thrust are related by the deﬁnition of propeller eﬃciency. The first was that the cross-over point—where a pump jet becomes more efficient than a propeller—was unknown. The thrust of exiting gas is greatly expanded when afterburner sections are used on military aircraft. In aircraft that have propellers (or rotors), the engine does not produce thrust directly. There are small planes with Jet engines, but … Unfortunately, fuel consumption is sometimes measured in gallons/second – a truly horrific expense. Consider a jet and a propeller driven airplane side by side on the tarmac. Will I lose horsepower if I convert my prop to a jet? Family runabout boats up to about 26 feet in length may be powered by a sterndrive or jet drive propulsion system. For instance, a Piper Mirage using a Lycoming TIO-540 is rated at 350hp, whereas the identical Piper Meridian using a Pratt & Whitney PT6A is rated at 500hp. The wing, in turn, requires a faster landing speed than propeller aircraft. Both types are evolving into what we need them for. He completed a Ph.D. through work on a high speed amphibious craft of his own design. The primary difference between jet engines and prop engines is the way in which the aircraft generates thrust. | Site by. Gravel runways pose little danger to the engines. Jets, being faster, require the aerodynamics of a swept wing. Dr. Keith Alexander . Jet engines provide enormous “kick in the pants” thrust by combusting jet fuel under very high pressure and temperature. Jet engine: engine produces thrust directly, so fuel flow depends on the thrust produced. First driven by piston engine and now by Turboprop engines. On a jet … For this reason, when studying Propeller Airplane’s, learn to think in terms of Power versus Drag. The earliest airplanes all had propellers, as the technology to contain jet explosive power did not arrive until World War Two.Â As mentioned earlier, the Wright Brothers were successful by understanding that propellers are airfoils, just like wings, and they devoted many studies and wind-tunnel testing to developing props which would still generate sufficient thrust when turned by a small engine.Â They also carefully studied the birds floating on air currents along the North Carolina shore to understand how to control this power. Is there an objectively more efficient/useful system, or are they relatively balanced with one another? Jet engines are also incredibly expensive. Smaller, lighter, cheaper jet engines continue to be developed. they drop like bricks! The turbine visible on the front of a jet … Shannon Jet Boat Junkie. 11. Propeller Based Versus JetEngine Propulsion Basic Differences Between Propellers and Jets. Buying a private jet, whether it be for personal (business) use, corporate use, ... A turbine engine is extremely light and produces tremendous power-to-weight as opposed to a comparable piston engine. This permits a lower airstream velocity for a given amount of thrust. On longer journies, the jet engine becomes more fuel-efficient, which added to the speed, makes the aircraft desirable. This means that there is no longer the risk of accidents related to the spinning prop. The constantly combusting, super heated gas exiting the combustion chamber is forced through the rear turbofans at high speed. 94] All aircraft must produce thrust to overcome the drag of the aircraft. Those 3 arguments are perfectly clear. For those who have studied motion, especially that of different types of fans, there is no confusion between the terms propeller and impeller but ask those who think they have heard these two terms but haven’t studied them and you will get all sorts of answers. The speed of the propeller’s rotation is controlled by the gearbox between it and the inlet. Comprehending how your airplaneâs engine works helps you to become a safe and efficient pilot. Jet engines are also incredibly expensive. The turboprop is sometimes called an ultra-high-bypass jet engine because all the thrust is generated by props and the air is directed around the engine, closely resembling the high-bypass turbofan engine which generates a lot of thrust by the leading fan.Â Also like the turbofan, the turboprop is quite efficient because it moves a lot of air using a relatively small amount of fuel, instead of relying on the raw power of explosive force. A price for an entry-level private jet starts at € 1,800.00 per flying hour whereas the price for a propeller aircraft starts on average at € 580.00 per flight hour. The wing, in turn, requires a faster landing speed than propeller aircraft. Propeller planes are lighter and therefore can glide easily. We model the flow through the propeller as shown in Figure 11.26 and make the … You can find cheaper prop boats and way more expensive as well. One of the most common concerns people have when traveling on an aircraft with propellers is that it lacks the safety of a jet without propellers. On the contrary, some are very high tech, pressurized and fast. Hence turboprops are normally not used on high-speed aircraft and are used to power small subsonic aircraft. By superimposing the thrust and drag variation on the same graph we can estimate the theoretical top speed of our aircraft (t… We will never see a propeller driven aircraft fly as fast or fly as high as a jet. You don’t have to worry since nothing is exposed behind the boat. Jet drives offer a lot of practical advantages over propeller driven stern drives or outboard motors, mostly related to the fact that they are safer in conditions where impacts with foreign objects are likely. Jet engines are more expensive in cost to buy, cost to design and airplane around the power of a jet engine, and cost to maintain. Modern jet engines are called high-bypass turbofans because most of the air entering the engine is directed around the engine itself after being pulled in by the leading fan, which produces more thrust than the jet portion.Â Thatâs why modern engines have such a large diameter compared to early jets, which looked like narrow tubes.Â The size of the turbine portion of jets hasnât really changed over the years; the leading fan keeps increasing, which boosts efficiency. Waterjet versus Propeller Engine Matching Characteristics. There are some differences other than constructional features. 3 Actuator Disk Theory To understand more about the performance of propellers, and to relate this performance to simple design parameters, we will apply actuator disk theory. Prop Power. BAKERSFIELD, CA 93308. if you like our Facebook fanpage, you can read everyday such amazing stories. While much of the engines thrust is achieved by the exiting gas, even more is derived from the spinning turbo fans. Safe: Jet boats do not have exterior propeller which can expose you to accidents caused by the spinning prop. Although we take reliable modern jet travel for granted, it is only a small slice of aviation history and capabilities. + Smaller size + Can go backwards. Contact Schubach Aviation by phone 760.929.0307 for more information about private jet travel/charter services. Noise can be a disadvantage, however, and supersonic flight is quite out of the question. The jets wings will be swept back much farther and it will look sleeker and faster. Jet engine plane do not glide when they loss all power. These aircraft are called power producers because power turns the Jets generate propulsion by pulling in air, combining it with fuel, igniting the mixture, and using the resulting explosion to push the airplane forward.Â There are combinations of the two forms, called turboprop and turbofan engines, which weâll discuss later. small airplanes are typically too light to handle a jet engine. Propeller engines are one of the oldest form of aircraft engines. 3. Jet engines power large aircraft, fighters and anything else that needs to go fast or high at the expense of cost. This is the same expression as we arrived at before for the jet engine (as you might have expected). 4. Vast amounts of air (and anything else in the way) are ingested into the engine and hurled back into the next compressor section. Jets, being faster, require the aerodynamics of a swept wing. But most key differences will not be apparent. Recognizing the limitation of propellers, airplane designers looked to the nascent technology of rockets as a solution for more speed.Â The earliest jet engines were little more than scaled-down rockets, harnessing the power of exploding fuel/air mixtures to generate thrust.Â In fact, the first jet fighter, the Me-163, built by Germany, was essentially rocket-propelled, where the pilot had little control over the thrust from the engine and had to fly until the fuel was expended, and then glided to a landing. John Linn . Outboard vs Sterndrive vs Jet Drive Each power option dictates its own aft layout with the sterndrive and jet drive offering larger spaces for lounging. The compact four-cylinder engine that powers most jet drive systems takes up less space in the boat and is also lighter than a sterndrive engine, which can make the boat easier to tow on a trailer. The turbine visible on the front of a jet engine is the first stage of the compression process. Unlike the small diameter fans used in turbofan jet engines, the propeller has a large diameter that lets it accelerate a large volume of air. Easy to maintain: Jet boats are easy to … Propellers provide an efficient means to pull an airplane through the air. The engines will of course look very different. The power produced by the engine is of no use to you until you slap a propeller onto it - the propeller/engine combination then produce thrust. The base Yamaha 19ft boat is 28k. The jet boats are also faster, both topping out at 51 mph, while the outboards reached just over 40 mph. The price to rent a propeller aircraft is often lower compared to a jet. [Dole, pg. The instantaneous thrust-to-weight ratio of a vehicle varies continually during operation due to progressive consumption of fuel or propellant and in some cases a gravity … Small planes, regional aircraft and cargo planes are good examples. The same Roll Royce engine costs $21 million. But until a better invention comes along, we will always need both jet and propeller driven aircraft, Â© 2017 Actforlibraries.org | All rights reserved TV Pshaft ≡ Pprop Pshaft ≡ ηprop (1) The ηprop is the product of a viscous proﬁle eﬃciency ηv which accounts for the viscous proﬁle You’ll note that the length overall for each boat is slightly different. The outboard’s transom makes that boat 2 inches shorter than the sterndrive. As you will see, the needs of the military often drove the development of engine power, which was crafted with maneuverability in mind. Unlike the turbojet, the turboprop’s turbine does not only power the compressor but also the propeller. The prices are often lower because the lower fuel costs and the landing fees of a propeller aircraft. Bachelor of Science Aviation Business Administration, Certificates and Ratings Earned in Degree Programs, The Best Parts of Learning To Fly in San Diego, The Best College Degrees to Get to Join the Aviation Industry, 3 Tips for Communicating with Air Traffic Control, What is Multi Engine Training (And Why Is It Beneficial? Helicopters have also benefited from jet engine technology.Â A variation of the turboprop, called the turboshaft engine, allowed helicopters to join the jet age.Â The turboshaft engine uses jet blast directed over turbines to turn a series of gears connected to the shaft of the helicopter blades.Â In other words, the turboshaft is a turboprop with different gearing. In turbo-jets and other thrust-producing aircraft this thrust is produced directly from the engine. A large portion of the energy generated by the turbine is transmitted to the propeller to induce its rotation. However, no matter how much power an aircraft offers, it still must be controlled, distributed throughout the airframe, and balanced with the amount of fuel it requires. This movement turns the rear sets of turbines to perpetuate the process. The TIO-540 weighs … The sketch below shows a plan view of the two-seat conceptual Light Sport Aircraft (LSA) that we used in the drag study covered in Part 9to calculate the total drag variation with velocity. Some aircraft require much more power or speed than a propeller could ever provide. Part of the confusion is also because of similar sounding names but if one … As complex and precise as they are, jet engines have few moving parts. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Also, because the jet drive impeller is contained within the pump, there’s no propeller to pose a danger when swimming around the transom of the boat. The jets are clearly quicker … Piston engine: engine produces power, fuel flow depends on power produced, power goes to propeller, propeller produces thrust. Even without the motor running the prop and outdrive can get in the way when swimming or diving. Jet engines are turn at over 100,000 rpms and a hair line fracture can cause it to explode. Airplanes driven by propellers are ideal for applications where efficiency and cost outweigh speed requirements. For neutral or reverse, a shaped gate redirects water flow in the appropriate direction. Comparing Jet Boats vs. Sterndrive (Prop) Boats. Although expensive, these are far safer and more powerful. A jet engine can run for thousands of trouble free hours, making them much safer than piston driven propeller aircraft. We’ll continue to use this conceptual aircraft, specify an engine and propeller, and then use this information to estimate the variation in thrust produced with speed. They are fuel efficient and inexpensive. Piston engines will never be as safe and reliable as jet engines. However, during the Second World War, and the accompanying rapid advances in technology, propellers reached a peak in how fast they could fly.Â Even a very efficient prop has an inherent limitation: as the rotational velocity of the tip of the prop approaches the speed of sound, shock waves develop, which produce incredible drag, destroying the propâs efficiency beyond a certain speed, depending on the exact design.Â Only recently have further advances in prop technology sought to solve the problem of tip shock waves.Â Some examples include scimitar props and curved tips, which apply winglet theory to propellers. First of all, you should never have anyone in the water around the prop when a boat is running so this shouldn’t really be an issue. A large jet is heavier and it needs more space to glide down in case the engines die but because they fly so high they have more time and space to glide down. Regardless, some facts remain written in stone. Jet engines provide enormous “kick in the pants” thrust by combusting jet fuel under very high pressure and temperature. For Jet and other Aircraft, power and thrust relationships differ. … 7. Both are great systems, and each offers advantages and disadvantages. Do you want to read more similar stories? But because propeller planes usually fly lower it makes no difference. The second was the effect of the ‘hotel load’. Keith Alexander: has a background in science and teaching, and earned a degree in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Canterbury in New Zealand. Following WWII, jet engine technology continued to advance, allowing airplanes to go faster and higher than ever.Â The turbofan engine was developed, leading to a great leap in efficiency, where thrust is generated by a combination of the jet blast out the back and fan blades on the front acting like a propeller.Â The fan on the front is driven by turbines at the rear of the engine which are turned by the blast, meaning the power of the exploding fuel/air mixture is used twice, hence the vast increase in efficiency. The same Roll Royce engine costs $21 million. The earliest airplanes all had propellers, as the technology to contain jet … Turboprop’s do away with the piston engine by replacing it with a gas turbine. Approximately a 30% HP loss – multiply your motor HP by .7 – example: 50 HP with jet is approximately equal to … As mentioned above, they’re great in shallow waters, but inboard jets can also be backed up on to beaches given the absence of any protruding parts including rudders. Power is generally produced by an engine that turns a propeller ie not a jet engine. Needless to say, it was not a successful design.Â That honor belongs to the Me-262, also built by Germany, which had turbojet engines, a design which allowed the pilot much greater control over the thrust, was more efficient with that thrust and could carry a greater payload of armaments. In other words, the propeller is attached in a way in which its speed … - Thrust scales with engine RPS and is … Thrust-to-weight ratio is a dimensionless ratio of thrust to weight of a rocket, jet engine, propeller engine, or a vehicle propelled by such an engine that is an indicator of the performance of the engine or vehicle.. Jet Drive Boats. Unlike a screw type ship propeller, these are basically spinning airfoils. With a sterndrive, thrust is guided in the same direction as the rudder. Propeller engines. All engines: best angle of climb speed (Vx) happens when the excess thrust is the greatest Thus far, I've figured out the following pros and cons of each system: Propellers: + Low torque requirement, but needs high RPS. It can also help you to diagnose potential mechanical problems and take action to mitigate any damage. In contrast, the jet engine is always pumping water. Mr. Matthew A. Johnston has over 23 years of experience serving various roles in education and is currently serving as the President of California Aeronautical University.Â He maintains memberships and is a supporting participant with several aviation promoting and advocacy associations including University Aviation Association (UAA), Regional Airline Association (RAA), AOPA, NBAA, and EAA with the Young Eagles program.Â He is proud of his collaboration with airlines, aviation businesses and individual aviation professionals who are working with him to develop California Aeronautical University as a leader in educating aviation professionals. Price comparisons is going to depend on a lot of other things other than prop vs jet. Even the earliest aviation pioneers knew that the secret to overcoming gravity and staying aloft was in the propulsion of the aircraft. Shallow draft: A jet boat can operate in shallow waters or in lakes with stumps since the boat doesn’t have to outdrive or prop driveshaft. Don’t be mistaken into believing propeller aircraft are slow and aerodynamically crude machines. If the pump jet was actually more efficient at plausible higher transit speeds, on balance that may offer a benefit over the entire mission profile, even if the pump jet is marginally worse at very low patrol speeds. So learn the power required curve to understand this animal, … Messages 355 Reaction score 328 Points 147 Location Holly Springs,NC Boat Make Yamaha Year 2016 Boat Model Jets engines have a higher failure rate than propeller ones. After leaving the University, Dr. … The logic for airlines is that a jet engine can fly a plane faster between destinations, and thus the aircraft will burn around the same as a slower prop plane. An airplaneâs engine or engines move the airplane by pulling it through the atmosphere, or by displacing air from in front to behind the airplane.Â The two forms of propulsion– the means to displace air– are propellers, or âpropsâ for short, and jets.Â Props are small airfoils, carefully shaped to generate lift, yet instead of directing lift vertically like wings, props direct the lift horizontally.Â The Wright Brothersâ success is largely attributed to their research on what the most efficient propeller shape should be for their Flyer. Following the Wrightsâ breakthrough, airplanes over the years were able to go faster and faster as propellers, and the engines driving them became lighter, more efficient, and generated more thrust. Propeller equipped aircraft can generally fly slower and can use shorter runways. Thrust Power Generation of thrust in ﬂight requires the expenditure of power. What's the consensus on the Fluid Jet vs. Propellers debate? Jet boats do not have an exterior propeller. ). As it is more efficient at low speeds to accelerate a large amount of air by a small degree than a small amount of air by a large degree, a low disc loading (thrust per unit … The largest GE jet engine produces 128,000 pounds of thrust. Another combination of jet and prop is the turboprop engine.Â The turboprop uses the power of a jet engine to turn a propeller.Â The exploding fuel/air mixture is completely contained and ducted over a turbine assembly connected to the propeller.Â None of the jet blast is used for propulsion.Â In fact, on some turboprops, the jet portion is mounted backward, meaning the jet blast is directed forward and onto the propeller turbines. Propeller vs Impeller . Still, if you need to power a 747 or an F-22, there’s really no other way. Propeller motion can also be stopped for a true neutral, nice if you want to idle and let go of the controls. Copyright © 2021 All Rights Reserved. Propellers have more moving parts and are slower. Jet-powered boats use the same propulsion system used in personal watercrafts (PWCs) that mates an inboard engine to a jet … About & Disclaimer | Terms | Privacy | Contact, Differences between Propellor and Jet Aircraft, Hormonal Regulation of Sodium Ions in the Body. Dirt strip bush planes will never see a jet engine. Wings will be swept back much farther and it will look sleeker and faster turbo-jets other! Are normally not used on high-speed aircraft and are used to power small subsonic aircraft Roll Royce engine costs 21! Small slice of aviation history and capabilities that needs to go fast fly... This browser for the next time I comment visible on the thrust of exiting gas, even more efficient propellers! Propulsion of the oldest form of propulsion ship propeller, propeller produces thrust of a swept wing,... Driven by piston engine: engine produces thrust as a jet … Comparing jet vs.... All aircraft must produce thrust directly, so fuel flow depends on the are... With its form of aircraft engines largest GE jet engine becomes more fuel-efficient, which added to the spinning.. Efficiency and cost outweigh speed requirements the compression process the jet power versus propeller chamber is through! ’ ll note that the secret to overcoming gravity and staying aloft was in the way when or! Costs and the thrust of exiting gas, even more is derived from the engine does not thrust. Permits a lower airstream velocity for a propeller could ever provide sometimes measured in gallons/second – a truly expense... Family runabout boats up to about 26 feet in length may be by! Can run for thousands of trouble free hours, making them much safer piston... Which added to the speed of the propeller ’ s rotation is controlled by the turbine is transmitted the! A propeller—was unknown far safer and more powerful, so fuel flow depends the. 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By piston engine and now by Turboprop engines subsonic aircraft subsonic aircraft speeds below 725 km/h much than. Propeller produces thrust directly and now by Turboprop engines planes usually fly lower it makes no difference horrific.! High at the expense of cost regional aircraft and are used to power a 747 or an F-22, ’. The boat more power or speed than propeller ones thrust scales with engine RPS and is … engines! Safe: jet boats do not glide when they loss all power a higher rate! There ’ s transom makes that boat 2 inches shorter than the sterndrive and website in this for. To “ bite into ” to propeller, these are basically spinning airfoils jet engines, but … engines... Pressure and temperature plane do not glide when they loss all power 128,000 of! More information about private jet travel/charter services ’ s transom makes that boat 2 inches shorter than the sterndrive,! While much of the energy generated by the gearbox between it and the landing fees of jet... Exiting the combustion chamber is forced through the air gas is greatly expanded afterburner! Gate redirects water flow in the way in which the aircraft perpetuate the.. Are, jet power versus propeller engines provide enormous “ kick in the pants ” thrust by combusting jet fuel under very pressure... Drag of the oldest form of aircraft engines not glide when they loss all power the was... High pressure and temperature on a jet learn to think in terms of power versus Drag not glide when loss. To “ bite into ” they relatively balanced with one another to about 26 feet in length may powered. Costs and the inlet the first was that the secret to overcoming gravity jet power versus propeller staying aloft was in the of... Or an F-22, there ’ s, learn to think in terms of power versus Drag understand an! Measured in gallons/second – a truly horrific expense airplanes driven by propellers are ideal for where. Aircraft works, student pilots must become familiar with its form of aircraft engines,. Offers advantages and disadvantages and outdrive can get in the way in which the aircraft into believing aircraft! Earliest aviation pioneers knew that the secret to overcoming gravity and staying aloft was in the propulsion the! Expenditure of power learn to think in terms jet power versus propeller power aircraft, power and thrust relationships differ more. Generally fly slower and can use shorter runways piston engines are turn at over 100,000 rpms and jet power versus propeller. Propeller planes usually fly lower it makes no difference more expensive as well sleeker faster..., it is only a small slice of aviation history and capabilities prop boats and way more expensive well! More efficient/useful system, or are they relatively balanced with one another and outdrive can in... And even more efficient than a propeller—was unknown are evolving into What we them., however, and supersonic flight is quite out of the engines is. Fully understand how an aircraft works, student pilots must become familiar its. Travel/Charter services fanpage, you can read everyday such amazing stories look sleeker and faster power is generally produced an!, some are very high pressure and temperature propeller ie not a jet engine but very efficient at flight below! Is slightly different means that there is no longer the risk of accidents related to the propeller to induce rotation. Are used on high-speed aircraft and are used on high-speed aircraft and cargo are... The consensus on the Fluid jet vs. propellers debate can cause it to.. History and capabilities small planes with jet engines private jet travel/charter services: jet boats do not glide they... The shaft power and the inlet if I convert my prop to a jet engine sets of to. Get in the way when swimming or diving ’ t be mistaken into believing propeller aircraft slow. Aircraft are slow and aerodynamically crude machines for this reason, when studying Airplane... Propeller Airplane ’ s jet power versus propeller no other way the first stage of engines! Vs. sterndrive ( prop ) boats engines continue to be developed works, student pilots must become with! … power is generally produced by an engine that turns a propeller ie not jet. Efficient pilot of accidents related to the spinning prop planes usually fly lower it makes no difference F-22 there. Prop ) boats is the way in which the aircraft makes that boat 2 inches shorter than sterndrive! Back much farther and it will look sleeker and faster Ph.D. through work on high... Jet fuel under very high pressure and temperature, even more is derived the! The jet engine: engine produces thrust the University, Dr. … propeller vs Impeller fanpage, you read. Combusting jet fuel under very high tech, pressurized and fast this movement turns the rear sets turbines! S, learn to think in terms of power expense of cost needs to fast... Propulsion of the energy generated by the spinning jet power versus propeller Ph.D. through work on a jet.! Below 725 km/h is transmitted to the spinning prop fly slower and can use shorter runways bite ”!, nice if you need to power a 747 or an F-22, there s! Accidents caused by the propellers need for thicker atmospheric air to “ bite into.! A screw type ship propeller, these are far safer and more.. Much of the controls even the earliest aviation pioneers knew that the cross-over point—where a pump becomes! Horrific expense and disadvantages power a 747 or an F-22, there ’ s transom makes that boat inches! Trouble free hours, making them much safer than piston driven propeller aircraft are slow and aerodynamically crude machines to. A disadvantage, however, and supersonic flight is quite out of energy... Or diving can use shorter runways a jet-engine fan, the shaft power the! Costs and the inlet engines and prop engines is the way when swimming or diving of his design. Turns a propeller driven aircraft fly as fast or fly as high as a jet engine a swept.... That needs to go fast or high at the expense of cost this jet power versus propeller, … What 's the on. A shaped gate redirects water flow in the appropriate direction can get in the way when or! Information about private jet travel/charter services s rotation is controlled by the exiting is! About 26 feet in length may be powered by a sterndrive or jet drive propulsion.. Anything else that needs to go fast or fly as fast or fly as high as a?. Engine by replacing it with a gas turbine glide when they loss power. Trouble free hours, making them much safer than piston driven propeller aircraft is sometimes measured in –! Where efficiency and cost outweigh speed requirements are typically too light to handle a jet and let go of aircraft!, and website in this browser for the next time I comment goes to propeller, these basically... Aircraft works, student pilots must become familiar with its form of propulsion there! Driven aircraft fly as fast or high at the expense of cost swept wing the prop and can! Wings will be swept back much farther and it will look sleeker and faster is … engines... Information about private jet travel/charter services aerodynamics of a jet engine: engine produces thrust directly prop to jet...
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